Grupo de Economia da Energia

Posts Tagged ‘climate change’

Novas energias renováveis no Brasil: desafios e oportunidades

In energias renováveis on 23/05/2017 at 11:45

Por Luciano Losekann e Michelle Hallack

luciano052017A questão ambiental, tanto global quanto local, e os recentes avanços tecnológicos transformaram as energias renováveis na escolha prioritária para a expansão de capacidade de geração elétrica.  Segundo IRENA (2017), desde de 2012, a instalação de capacidade de renováveis ultrapassou as não renováveis de forma crescente. Em 2015, a capacidade instalada de renováveis representou 61% da capacidade total adicionada no mundo.  Este aumento das renováveis no mundo se deve principalmente ao aumento das novas tecnologias de energia renováveis, em especial eólica e solar. Em 2015 o aumento da capacidade instalada das duas fontes mais importantes das novas renováveis, solar e eólica, superou a de hidráulica pela primeira vez.

O Brasil se posiciona neste cenário de forma bastante peculiar visto a importância histórica das hidráulicas na matriz elétrica nacional. Por um lado, as energias renováveis no Brasil são um caso de sucesso, a participação de fontes renováveis na matriz de geração brasileira é de 85%[1]. Isto se deve, principalmente, à participação da energia hidroelétrica, uma tecnologia conhecida[2] e amplamente aplicada no Brasil.  A expansão das hidráulicas, no entanto, enfrenta progressivamente maiores custos e restrições. Assim, se o Brasil quiser manter uma matriz limpa terá que fazer face as novas oportunidades e desafios relacionados a introdução das novas energias renováveis. Continue lendo »

Reduction of CO2 emissions: distributing costs and sacrifices

In energy on 07/11/2011 at 00:49

By Ronaldo Bicalho

According to our last article, thinking about the transition between the current economy based on intensive use of fossil fuels and a future economy relying on renewable energy as a defined process with a single trajectory, a single timing and unique content, is a simplification that does not help in understanding the nature of this transition, its possibilities and hindrances.

Indeed, the transition is an undefined and open process with multiple paths, content and possible times.

In other words, there is no a single transition, but various transitions.

In this sense, analyzing nowadays the possible evolution of the energy sector in the world involves the analysis of these various transitions.

Mapping transitions

To identify these different possibilities of transition it is essential to map the different ways of noting the trade-off energy security versus climate change and the various forms of facing it.

Thus, we can consider generally the reduction in the intensity of the climate change process as the main objective and, thereafter, to evaluate the type of negative impact (cost) the reduction of CO2 emissions has on energy security, according to several hypotheses to achieve this reduction. Continue lendo »

Energy security and climate change: the hard convergence

In energy on 19/09/2011 at 00:30

By Ronaldo Bicalho

Two main issues dominate the current debate about energy: climate change and energy security.

Initially, these issues belong to different areas of public policy; however, the recent development of events, both in energy and environment levels, made the interdependence between them increases significantly.

According to this, the peculiarity of the current moment is not simply the presence of the environmental issue – climate change – in the energy debate, but the prominence acquired by the subject in the evolution of the current energy situation. As a result, it is not enough to recognize the need to incorporate the environmental variable in the debate, but recognize the need to incorporate it as a relevant issue as energy issue (energy security) is addressed.

The need to balance environmental and energy dimensions in the discussion on energy results from the strong presence of fossil fuels in both climate change and energy security.

For the environment area , fossil fuels are the main cause of climate change as a function of temperature increase generated by the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere; in particular, the CO2 from burning fuels.

For the energy area, fossil fuels play a key role for ensuring the energy supply necessary for economic development and social welfare, due to a set of attributes – capacity of storage, density, availability and control – which allows the use of these fuels at scale levels and cost extremely advantageous. Continue lendo »

From fossil fuels to renewables: the hard energy transition

In energy on 18/07/2011 at 00:30

By Ronaldo Bicalho

To prepare an energy policy that manages the hard transition from a fossil fuel economy to a low carbon economy is not an easy task.

The massive replacement of fossil fuels by renewable energy sources involves significant technological, economic and institutional changes. These changes go beyond the energy sector and cover subjects related to a set of values associated with the crucial role of energy in economic development and social welfare and relationship with natural resources and environment derived precisely from this centrality.

The compatibility between the imperatives of energy security and climate change, by penalizing fossil fuels and incentives to renewables, has been demonstrated much more complex than previously conceived.

The idea of bringing together the best of both worlds – the self-sufficiency and low emission, increased energy security and combat the factors causing climate change – concerning the expansion of renewable sources in the energy matrix has been facing relevant technological, economic and political-institutional obstacles.

The first obstacle is technological and concerns the requirement of significant advances in renewable technologies so they can actually compete with traditional technologies. These advances are related to overcome the problems associated with low capacity of storage, density and scale characteristics of the current stage of development of renewables. Continue lendo »

Energy security and climate change: different views, several policies

In energy on 23/05/2011 at 00:30

By Ronaldo Bicalho

Energy security and climate change are the two main axes currently surrounded by the energy policies in the world.

Then, to ensure the supply of energy and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases have become major strategic objectives of Nation States in the energy field, with significant impact in the desired composition of the future energy matrix and setting the most appropriate strategies to achieve it.

However, the evaluation of the real consequences of these two objectives at the heart of energy policy needs a qualification. Especially, because Nation States perceive, hierarchized and insert into their set of public policies such goals, which, after all, translates into the amount of resources that, in fact, these States are willing to mobilize to achieve them. Continue lendo »