Grupo de Economia da Energia

Posts Tagged ‘investment’

Exploration and production of oil and gas in deep waters: evolution and trends – Part III

In natural gas, oil on 02/01/2012 at 00:30

By Thales Viegas

The first two articles about E&P in deep waters (*) characterized this activity at the global and domestic levels. Aspects such as the importance and attractiveness of this business can be identified as factors that contributed to increase investments, offshore discoveries and production in deep waters.

This article will discuss the process of technological learning and investments in research and development (R&D) made by oil companies. The goal is to encourage attention about the emergence and consolidation of new technologies. It is also demonstrates that increased innovative efforts by oil companies indicates an increasing search for technological ability, in order to counterbalance rising costs.

However, the maturity of a set of technologies and their domain by agents is a process that requires practice and time. In this context, we have to analyze some limits and technological opportunities arose during the development of skills for operating in deep waters, especially in the case of Pre-salt. Continue lendo »

The evolution of the Brazilian government’s natural gas policy

In natural gas on 05/12/2011 at 00:37

By Marcelo Colomer

Almost a year after Decree 7,382 by the former President of the Republic Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, a seminar was held in Brasilia on the challenges of the new regulatory framework for the natural gas industry in Brazil. The event occurred in the last 29, from a joint initiative of the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME), National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (ANP) and Energy Planning Company (EPE).

The main objective of the event was to discuss with the sector agents the main challenges for implementing the new regulatory framework for the natural gas industry. According to the MME Secretary, Marco Antônio Almeida, there is recognition that Act 11,909 and Decree 7,382 do not cover issues relating to gas regulation, thus requiring additional regulatory acts. According to him, this is a major challenge for MME and ANP. Helder Queiroz, ANP Director, states that development of new resolutions and ordinances and review of regulatory acts in force are essential to bind ANP rules to the new industry’s regulatory framework. Continue lendo »

Exploration and production of oil and gas in deep waters: evolution and trends – Part II

In natural gas, oil on 24/10/2011 at 00:50

By Thales Viegas

Our last article concerning E&P in deep waters attempted to place this industry segment in the deepest part of Global Oil Industry (GOI). This approach aims to analyze the oil activities in Brazil carried out in great depths. It demonstrates the high rate of exploitation success and leadership of the country in regard to the greatest discoveries of the decade. It debates the virtuous circle on new discoveries. It considers the Brazilian remaining potential and high degree of attractiveness, in general, and the Pre-salt province, in particular. It highlights that the magnitude of reservoirs and quality of hydrocarbons found are relevant stimuli for international oil companies.

Pre-salt has been showing one of the largest oil structures in the world. In Brazil, Pre-salt pushed up the success rate in drilling wells. Table 1 shows the extraordinary success of the drilling in the Pre-salt, in the Lula field (former Tupi), in the Santos Basin. Pre-salt province’ success average is greater than world’s one. This indicates that the exploration risk in this environment has been low in the Pre-salt in relation to the alternatives around the world. By the early 2000s the national average was consistent with average rate of success in the world, which has ranged around 25%. Continue lendo »

Exploration and production of oil and gas in deep waters: evolution and trends – Part I

In natural gas, oil on 15/08/2011 at 00:30

By Thales Viegas

The offshore exploration and production of hydrocarbons is not new. The first activities would have occurred even at the beginning of last century, in the Gulf of Mexico, USA. They were performed from the adaptation of equipment and onshore exploration techniques. Since then, many technology and operating changes in the oil and gas upstream have occurred. And then, many features previously considered inaccessible or uneconomical have become the object of interest and economically recoverable reserves.

This article will address the potential for discovering resources and the level of reserves in deep waters. Continue lendo »

Prices, costs and new regulatory framework for oil

In oil on 25/04/2011 at 00:30

By Thales Viegas

The production sharing agreement, in Brazil, changes significantly the role of costs and prices in oil activity regulation. First, costs have become the decisive factor for determining the surplus oil to be shared. Second, the price of oil may not only be a reference to the monetization of oil for each agent involved, that is, the price which pays the oil purchased by agent. It can also influence the magnitude of the sharing, if the price is a variable in the calculation that defines the percentage of surplus for the government. In some countries, to share profit oil with the government depends upon the price of oil. That is, the higher the price of oil, the greater the government’s portion for the profit oil.

By deduction, the production sharing agreement may fix the involvement of government in production, but also can allow it to alternate according to contract items previously agreed. Given the centrality of price and cost variables, the following analyses attempt to explain the interdependent dynamics of these two items. Continue lendo »