Grupo de Economia da Energia

Posts Tagged ‘sustainability’

Energy security and climate change: the hard convergence

In energy on 19/09/2011 at 00:30

By Ronaldo Bicalho

Two main issues dominate the current debate about energy: climate change and energy security.

Initially, these issues belong to different areas of public policy; however, the recent development of events, both in energy and environment levels, made the interdependence between them increases significantly.

According to this, the peculiarity of the current moment is not simply the presence of the environmental issue – climate change – in the energy debate, but the prominence acquired by the subject in the evolution of the current energy situation. As a result, it is not enough to recognize the need to incorporate the environmental variable in the debate, but recognize the need to incorporate it as a relevant issue as energy issue (energy security) is addressed.

The need to balance environmental and energy dimensions in the discussion on energy results from the strong presence of fossil fuels in both climate change and energy security.

For the environment area , fossil fuels are the main cause of climate change as a function of temperature increase generated by the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere; in particular, the CO2 from burning fuels.

For the energy area, fossil fuels play a key role for ensuring the energy supply necessary for economic development and social welfare, due to a set of attributes – capacity of storage, density, availability and control – which allows the use of these fuels at scale levels and cost extremely advantageous. Continue lendo »

Fossil fuels and global warming in the complex energy policy game

In energy on 08/08/2011 at 00:30

By Renato Queiroz

By formulating and re-evaluating energy policies, countries face an issue: future energy matrixes should reflect the actions to decrease at an increasing rate the burning of oil, natural gas and coal, in order to stop the increasing concentration of (CO2) carbon dioxide emissions. This issue is followed by reports made by recognized organizations, such as those by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), warning that if such actions do not occur there will be rising of sea level, droughts in some regions, climate changes, etc.

Another example is the document published by the Asian Development Bank, on August 2, 2011, “Asia 2050”, whose findings were published recently by the press.  Established in 1966, such institution, whose objective is to promote economic growth for developing countries in Asia, warns in the document mentioned that the impact of climate change is among the main obstacles to the region to recover the dominant economic position before the Industrial Revolution. Continue lendo »

The future of biofuels VIII: The contrasting strategies of major oil companies and the future of the bio-economy

In biofuels on 04/07/2011 at 00:30

By José Vitor Bomtempo

The recent Ethanol Summit organized by UNICA in São Paulo, on June 6th and 7th, it seemed to be an interesting event for the line of reasoning that we have developed this series of articles. In some way, the Ethanol Summit addressed clearly – for the first time, I guess, in a relevant event in Brazil – the issue of industry of the future. Of course, many subjects of specific interest for Brazilian ethanol industry were highlighted and addressed in most, but some plenary sessions and meetings on Future and Technology addressed issues not so urgent.

Due to the Ethanol Summit, we propose a change in this blog that seems to be consistent with what we have developed: no more talk about biofuels of the future but we will talk about he new industry which includes in addition to biofuels, bio-products, biorefining and other bios that may arise. How should we name this industry?   As initial suggestion we have chosen bio-economy, which seems pretty comprehensive. Thus, we can say that the Ethanol Summit has provided a discussion of a number of questions related to the development of bio-economy worldwide and particularly in Brazil. In fact, all the videos of conference and plenary sessions can be watched here.

We will highlight in this article the plenary session O futuro do petróleo e o papel dos biocombustíveis (The future of oil and role of biofuels). The plenary session brought together executives from four major oil companies on biofuels: BP, Petrobras, Shell and Total. Continue lendo »

Energy security and climate change: different views, several policies

In energy on 23/05/2011 at 00:30

By Ronaldo Bicalho

Energy security and climate change are the two main axes currently surrounded by the energy policies in the world.

Then, to ensure the supply of energy and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases have become major strategic objectives of Nation States in the energy field, with significant impact in the desired composition of the future energy matrix and setting the most appropriate strategies to achieve it.

However, the evaluation of the real consequences of these two objectives at the heart of energy policy needs a qualification. Especially, because Nation States perceive, hierarchized and insert into their set of public policies such goals, which, after all, translates into the amount of resources that, in fact, these States are willing to mobilize to achieve them. Continue lendo »

The future of biofuels VII – what does Brazilian role?

In biofuels on 09/05/2011 at 00:30

By José Vitor Bomtempo

In last article, we discussed the Petrobras strategy, arguably the most important actor in the future of energy in Brazil. We can infer from the initiatives of the company an effective participation in the biofuels industry. But this participation seems to occur in a view more committed to the current industry – so-called first-generation – than with the industry of the future – so-called advanced biofuels and other bio-products.

This perspective is supported when comparing Petrobras with other major oil companies such as Shell and BP (see the previous articles, the future of biofuels IV and V), which combine position in the current industry and a strategy for building new industry. Total is other oil company that has increased interestingly its portion on biofuels of the future. Total will be back on the next article. The question today is to examine the Brazilian role in the industry of the future and for this we must examine beyond the role of Petrobras. Continue lendo »

The inexorable interdependence of Brazilian energy policies

In energy on 30/08/2010 at 00:30

By Helder Queiroz

The discussion on energy issues has been guided, at international and national level, about the future of the production and use of energy sources, which can not be any longer dissociated from policies that aim to achieve 3 goals simultaneously: security of energy supply, decreasing of energy dependence by Brazilian states and mitigation of impacts of climate changes caused by greenhouse gases, especially from the burning of fossil fuels. There is nothing trivial in reconciling these objectives, and they indicate probably an increasing importance of the binomial Energy-Technology in the process of finding solutions.

In the case of the energy industries, there are negative externalities, in variable degrees, regarding the production and use of all means of energy. For this reason, the State plays a fundamental role in both establishment of energy policy guidelines and application of economic and tax instruments required to mitigate externalities and securing energy supplies.

In Brazil, for decades, the guidance for energy policies, since the first oil crisis, implemented by many governments, was the attempt to achieve self-sufficiency in oil. This is an outstanding aspect of government guidelines for the Brazilian energy sector. The results are widely known. Although Brazil has to import light oil to balance its refining process, the degree of dependence in oil imports is now close to zero. And the possibilities unveiled with the important findings of the Pre-salt, even with major technological and institutional challenges to address and overcome, set the country in a privileged position regarding the allocation of energy resources. Continue lendo »